Tuesday, March 29, 2011


Glossary – Social Cognitive Learning Theory

Ø  Counter-imitation: refers to cases where the observers do the opposite of what they have observed in the model

Ø  Covert modelling: imagining another person performing the behaviour

Ø  Direct learning: when people learn thorough direct experience, their behaviour changes as a result of performing a behaviour, for which they are rewarded (direct reinforcement) or punished (direct punishment) by someone else

Ø  Imitation: when the behaviour of a model is repeated

Ø  Locus of control: People who believe that they can exercise considerable control over what happens to them have an internal locus of control, whereas those who are inclined to believe that circumstances beyond their control determine their fate have an external locus of control

Ø  Model: the person whose behaviour is observed

Ø  Modelling: the behaviour of the model

Ø  Observer: the person who observes someone else’s behaviour

Ø  Observational learning: the behaviour of a person which changes as a result of observing other people’s behaviour

Ø  Participant modelling: client is encouraged to reproduce the behaviour of the model, then client is rewarded through direct reinforcement

Ø  Positivist approach: behaviour is the result of knowable causes.

Ø  Reciprocal determinism / Interactional view: the view that behaviour is determined by the continuous interaction between the person, the situation and the person’s behaviour

Ø  Reinforcement agent: the person who rewards or punishes the model’s behaviour

Ø  Reproduction: the observers repetition of an observed behaviour. (we may observe a behaviour with attention and we may retain the info but not necessarily reproduce the behaviour)

Ø  Response repertoire: in every situation, the individual has various behaviours at his disposal

Ø  Retention: the extent to which the observer will remember the behaviour

Ø  Self-efficacy: peoples beliefs about their capabilities to function effectively in a given situation

Ø  Self-regulation: individuals ability to regulate their own behaviour (internal and external)

Ø  Self-reinforcement: rewarding one’s own behaviour

Ø  Self-punishment: punishing one’s own behaviour

Ø  Vicarious reinforcement: when the model’s behaviour is reinforced and the observer learns the behaviour

Ø  Vicarious punishment: when the observer observes the model being punished for their behaviour

Ø  Vicarious outcomes: the reinforcement/punishment a model receives

Glossary – The existential theory of Victor Frankl
Ø  Dereflection: a logotherapeutic technique designed to shift the attention of a person away from obsessive hyper-reflection and to focus on something meaningful instead

Ø  Dimensional ontology: a three-dimensional view of human functioning on a physical, psychological and also a spiritual level of being

Ø  Existential vacuum: a state of meaninglessness or spiritual emptiness characterised by a lack of purpose or direction in life

Ø  Freedom of the will: the capacity of self-determination through the exercise of choice

Ø  Meaning: the one right thing to do in a particular situation or moment of life in terms of what that situation requires (means)

Ø  Meaning of life: that life never ceases to hold meaning and that meaning can be found in all circumstances, even in suffering and death

Ø  Noogenic dimension: the third or spiritual level of existence which is unique to human beings

Ø  Noogenic or existential neurosis: the mental or spiritual anguish and existential despair people suffer who see no meaning in their lives

Ø  Paradoxical intention: a logotherapeutic technique designed to break the vicious circle of hyper-intention by encouraging the person to wish or intend , with much humour, what the person fears, thereby deflating or defusing the fear

Ø  Self-transcendence: the ability human beings have to think about themselves, to evaluate and judge themselves, and to change themselves

Ø  Socratic dialogue: a highly challenging and questioning logotherapeutic technique evoking critical and creative thought and which allows the person to discover and realise the meaning: the unique responsibilities and tasks of his or her own life

Ø  Subhuman levels of being: ways of functioning that human beings share in common with animals

Ø  Transhuman dimension: timeless and universal values and meanings which address the human conscience in unique ways and which can be discovered (grasped) and experienced by anyone, at any time, under all circumstances

Ø  Will to meaning: the desire to find meaning and purpose in life

Monday, March 28, 2011

Comprehensive summary - Personology Edition 4

PYC2015 - 2010

Summaries made from Text Book:

From individual to ecosystem

 Fourth Edition
WF Meyer, C Moore, HG Viljoen

Self-Concept Theory – Viktor Frankl (1905-1997)

Background - Page 436
§  Worked as professor of Neurology an psychiatry in Vienna
§  Contemplated the meaning and purpose of human existence
§  Opposed ideas that humans are mere mechanisms or animals
§  Was a student of Freud and Adler
§  He believed that as human being we are primarily motivated by a will to meaning
§  Own school of thought called logo therapy, known as the third Viennese school of psychotherapy
§  Jewish prisoner in several Nazi camps(having something to live for was what enable prisoners to hold on to the will to live)
§  Transcendental vision of being encompasses a great deal more than Maslow’s theory of self-actualisation
§  Unusually positive perspective, believed in indestructible significance of life
§  Death is the boundary which makes life a unique, unrepeatable opportunity, life is given to us so that we can find meaning, even in suffering

View of the person underlying the theory – Page 438
§  We have been given freedom to be able to exercise responsibility,
§  To live life beyond mere animal existence,
§  To live on a dimension of meaning in releasing timeless values as these emanate from a divine Trans human dimension,
§  To live highly personalized lives as we (uniquely) embrace the opportunities and fulfill the tasks that life presents to each one of us
Freedom to be responsible – Page 439
§  Person is not merely a highly dev eloped animal shaped by the forces of heredity and the environment but the human person is primarily a spiritual being – a being that has freedom and responsibility
§  We are also not compelled to behave in any particular way, we can say YES or NO
§  Because of this freedom to make choices we cannot ascribe our behaviour to conditioning or drives, but must take responsibility for making those choices and taking responsibility = noögenic dimension = makes us human
Level of being beyond animal existence – Page 439
§  True fulfillment is hardly possible without a sense of purpose (spiritual direction) in life – the struggle to find and experience this MEANING in life = the opportunity presented to and discerned by us through our conscience as something we are to realise or to grasp in each and every unique situation of our own personal lives
§  It is true that on a physical and crude psychosocial level we have much in common with the animal, but we also have properties NOT shared by animals
§  Being a person is distinguished by the radical transcendence of the biopsychical, and social faculties and a combination thereof
§  Self-transcendence = the freedom to rise above conditions and being able to think and do something about them
§  When we achieve psychological and spiritual maturity the will to meaning will be stronger that any other motivation
§  We want to know, we will make sacrifices, and devote ourselves to a cause
Transhuman Dimension – Page 440
§  Meaning is something that exist in an objective sense and is phenomenologically proven by the fact that in life we feel addresses by our conscience, called upon to act responsibly
§  Conscience is the vehicle through which we detect meaning, the one right thing to do in any particular situation or moment in life
§  We are not merely subjected to the social restrictions our superego has internalized, this conscience functions on a higher level
§  “life is unconditionally meaningful” = faith – the substance of thins hoped for, the evidence of things not seen
Highly personalized way of being (personally accountable) – Page 442
§  Something can only be meaningful if it is personally experienced as such
§  “religion is genuine only if we commit ourselves to it by freely choosing to be religious, never can anyone be forced to it”
§  Life holds meaning under all circumstances and that meaning can be experienced by anyone at anytime
§  We are only fully what we have been created to be when we live and move and have our being our being on the dimension of meaning

The structure of the personality – Page 443
Three dimensions of the personality
§  There are three levels or dimensions of existence :
o   Physical
o   Psychological and
o   Spiritual
§  Physical level:
o   Described as nothing but a complex biochemical mechanism powered by a combustion system which energizer computer with prodigious storage facilities for retaining encoded information.
§  Psychological level:
o   The person has needs and drive, in many ways similar to animals
§  Spiritual level (noögenic)
o   This dimension is unique to human beings
o   Due to our spiritual capacities we as human beings, are free
o   We are open systems, open towards ourselves (we can think and change ourselves) and towards the world (we can think about and change our world)
§  Human beings behaviours is determined by drives and instincts.
Spiritual core of the personality – Page 444
§  He describes the spiritual dimension as the personal ground of being
§  Human personality has a spiritual core
§  Not primarily our genetic make-up nor the environment that shape our personalities
§  It’s how we deal with both these factors which then determine our personality

Dynamics of the personality – Page 445
§  Frankl speaks about noödynamics (spiritual dynamics) of being human, rather than psychodynamics
§  Our wills are not instrumental in satisfying instincts (pleasure) or ensuring self-preservation (power)
§  Dynamics of the personality are based on:
o   Freedom of the will
o   Will to meaning
o   Meaning of life
Freedom of the will – Page 445
§  We all constantly faces choices and the decisions we make determine the future course of events
§  Not absolutely free – contend with our own limitations and constraints placed upon us by our particular environments.
§  Our freedom is contained in what we will achieve, despite our limitations
Will to meaning – Page 446
§  The will to meaning is deeper and more powerful than any other human motivation:      
o   Our will are free
o   Not merely propelled and aimlessly driven
o   We can think and make decisions
o   Want to know why
§  Four observation to prove our basic motivation is our will to meaning:
o   The will to meaning is manifested in circumstances of destitution as well as in circumstances of plenty
o   The satisfaction of physical and psychological needs is not the ultimate aim of human striving, but rather he means to being free to strive towards spiritual goals
o   The more a person pursues happiness, the more it eludes him or her because happiness is the effect of the attainment of meaning and cannot be pursued as an end
o   When the will to pleasure and power are uppermost in our behaviours, this would be a sign that our will to meaning is frustrated
Meaning of life – Page 449
§  Can be found in 3 principal ways :
o   Creative values – experience through what we contribute to life
o   Experiential values – blessings we receive from life
o   Attitudinal values – values we experience through the right attitudes we have towards life

Development of personality – Page 451
§  The core of the personality is already present at birth and develops throughout life
§  At birth life is an open possibility with the potential in us to achieve anything
§  Only at the end of our lives are we fully actualized
§  We are the force behind what we will become, self-determining
§  Biologically we are the ‘work’ of our parents, but spiritually we are our own life’s work
§  During the course of development uniquely human characteristics such as self-consciousness, conscience and responsible behaviour emerge
§  The person should be seen as a ‘time-Gestalt’. We are only fully developed in maturity and only then fully manifest uniquely human characteristics

Optimal Development – Page 452
When we function non the spiritual level; fully exercise freedom of will, fulfill the basic human motive of searching for, finding and realising meaning in our lives
Only a small minority of people because it takes courage and boldness to be optimally human
Self-determining action – Page 452
§  Take a stand concerning themselves and their circumstances, freely decide what they should do and how they should act
§  Does not attribute fate to internal or external factors or pressures
Realistic perception – Page 452
§  Separate and distance themselves from what is happening to them, thus view matters objectively and critically
§  Therefore e perceive self and circumstances realistically
Humour – Page 453
§  Distance self from weaknesses and problems and can laugh at self
Self-transcendence – Page 453
§  Are outward-looking rather than turned in on self, move beyond the self
§  Want to be involved in whatever gives their life meaning
§  Want to be faced with a tasks, to be challenged and to feel they have a calling
§  Dedicated to values and ideals
§  Own satisfaction and happiness are not the primary goals in life, but incidental side-effects of meaning fulfillment
Future directedness – Page 453
§  Are actively future directed as they are continually reaching out beyond a mere day-to-day existence
§  Have goals, a vision for their future
§  Past is also a rich treasure house of fulfilled possibilities
§  Death is not a threat, but a meaningful conclusion of the life that offered them precious opportunities and that they used to the best of their abilities
Work as a vacation – Page 453
§  Regard their work as a vocation through which they respond to the demands of responsibility
§  Work is an opportunity to make a worthwhile contribution to life
Appreciation of goodness, beauty and truth – Page 454
§  Receptive to the experience of good, beautiful and genuine thing life offers
§  Deeply enjoy and appreciate things like art, music, literature, nature
§  ‘everyday, every moment, each situation, is ready with new meaning’
§  Open to these new experiences offered daily
Respect and appreciation for the uniqueness of others – Page 454
§  Attitude towards others is one of respect and appreciation
§  Never makes other people the object of won satisfaction or use them to achieve own selfish ends
§  Want to have meaningful encounters with others and this can only happen when others are respected as individuals in their own right
§  Are free from prejudice, and discrimination in their attitude towards others
Meaning in suffering – Page 454
§  Have accepted that tragic fatalities of life and in such a way that it does not diminish their joy in life and that their belief in the meaning of life is actually deepened, it is unshakeable
§  These people have reached the highest peak of development

Views on Psychopathology – Page 455
Noögenic neurosis – Page 455
§  Lacing courage to respond to the challenge of life to exercise their freedom responsibly
§  Responsibility is evaded, avoided, shirked or minimized; conscience becomes dulled
§  They seek pleasure and power and position, they have an adroit business due to the denial of their spiritual side
§  Life becomes empty and meaningless, and existential vacuum develops
§  This neurosis has some characteristics: (man’s fear of responsibility and his escape from freedom)
    • And unplanned day-to-day existence
    • A fatalistic attitude towards life
    • Conformism
    • Totalitarianism
Human dignity of the psychiatric patient – Page 455
§  Even psychotic and mentally deficient people are human and have dignity
§  The so-called life not worth living does not exist, the nucleus of man remains indestructible, if this were not the case, it would be futile to be a psychiatrist

Psychotherapy – Page 457
§  Logo therapy – the third Viennese school of psychotherapy
§  Not only recognizes man’s spirit but actually starts from it
§  Logo therapy – therapy through meaning
§  To help people discover or re-discover meaning in their lives
§  To challenge people to become aware of things which require them to be responsible and which demand their love, care and involvement
§  Their attention is drawn to this meaning by way of using Socratic dialogue which evokes critical and creative thought to come up with their own answers
§  Not a problem-centered but meaning-centered therapy
§  Focus is not on their problems but their freedom to deal with them, to take a stand by the way of the attitudes they choose to adopt
§  Often simple to view and existing situation differently
§  Can also use shocking confrontation, paradoxical intention (outsmart anxiety with a humorous trick), or de-reflection (think of something else)
§  Also utilize self-detachment and self-transcendence with these techniques
§  And existential re-orientation

Interpretation and handling of aggression – Page 460
§  Unmistakable and pronounced evil inclination in human nature
§  Aggression is an inherent part of the human make-up
§  We are shaped by the kind of society in which we live = violence breeds violence
§  BBUUTT we have the freedom and ability not only to control aggressive impulses but also to counteract and overcome them
§  We can resist negative pressures and conditioning and even change the environment for the better
§  The freedom to bear oneself this way or that way
§  WHAT we do CHOOSE to do in the face of aggressive impulses and how do we DEAL with it in the environment

Self-Concept Theory – Abraham Maslow (1908-1970)
Person-oriented theory – humanistic holistic

Background – Page 336
§  Born in Brooklyn 1908, Russian Jews, poor, lonely child, relationship with mother was not good, Cousin Bertha gave him love and caring, married her at 20
§  He started off as a behaviorist, as he saw a simple method for reforming the world, but then his views changed at the birth of this first child.
§  His emphases is on human potential and we should study those who have succeeded in fulfilling their potential (self-actualisers0
§  Healthy functioning is the basis for his theory, and peoples basis need, values, goals, and plans all ply a role. The environment also plays a role- ‘good’ society is needed to realise ‘good’ potential
§  People are essentially good and worthy – founder of the ‘third force’ of the humanistic movement to add a new dimension

View of the person underlying the theory – Page 338
§  An optimistic one, positive aspects are acknowledged
§  Tendency towards self-actualisation is motive that underlies all behavior, ultimate goal, requires no change in basic nature of person
§  Person just need to discover what is there and allow it to flourish
§  Mush behaviour can be explained in terms of need gratification – not only relieves tension and frustration but also forms basis for growth and self-actualisation.
§  Hierarchy of needs: biological, safety, love, esteem then self-actualisation
§  Person depends on large extend on environment for need gratification few people reach self-actualisation
§  Person is an integrated whole, all aspects closely interwoven and it is the WHOLE person striving towards self-actualisation and not some part

Structure of personality – Page 339
§  The hierarchy of needs that partially explain human functioning also constitute the structural elements which are the basis of this personality theory
§  The functioning of need has to do with the dynamics of personality, the hierarchy of needs as well as the WAT they needs function
§  Goes with dynamics of personality

Dynamics of the personality – Page 339
Hierarchy of needs – Page 339
§  Hierarchy of needs – person’s development progresses through successive stages of need gratification towards the goal of self-actualisation
§  The lower the need, the more urgent it is thus lower needs must be gratified regularly and ‘reliably’ before a higher need will manifest itself.
§  Basic needs are : (ranked from lowest to highest)
o   Physiological needs
o   Safety needs
o   Affiliation and love needs
o   Self-esteem needs
o   Self-actualisation or self-realisation needs
§  Distinguish between two kinds of motives
1.     Deficiency motives – first four levels
§  Directly related to basic needs, whose gratification brings about a decrease in tension, when behaviour is directed by these motives, cognitive abilities are applied negatively and will this not lead to actualisation
2.     Growth motive – the actualisation needs
Physiological needs – Page 340
§  To do with survival, hunger, thirst, sleep, sensory stem, sexual gratification
§  Are homeostatic, their gratification restores equilibrium inside body
§  Can be specific, I need this food, as I need salt/sugar
§  Are the most basic needs and if not gratified regularly they dominate all other needs, and the person will not be interested in other needs
§  These needs become dominant again if survival is threatened
Safety needs – Page 341
§  Come to fire when physiological needs are regularly met
§  May become so dominant that all functioning is directed towards security, stability, protection, structure, law and other, limits, freedom for fear, children especially show this
§  Children feel safe in an environment where there is structure, set limits and boundaries, and fixed patterns apply
§  Measured freedom, not unbounded freedom is needed for safety needs gratification
§  If safety needs are acutely unfulfilled the person may develop obsessive-compulsive neurosis in which she tries to arrange her world in so limited and precise manner as to preclude any possibility of experiencing insecurity
§  People of his level will identify more readily with a leader who will protect them when there is a crises
Needs for affiliation and love – Page 341
§  The need to belong somewhere and with someone to the fore… when safety needs are regularly met
§  In our modern society this need is rarely met and results in the formation of groups and societies where like minded people can come together for a sense of belonging.
§  Even rebel groups may be formed for this reason as well
§  Identification with a home and neighborhood also contributes to the grafit of this need
§  Unfulfilled needs for love as the root of psychopathology
Need for self-esteem – Page 342
§  The need to evaluate oneself positively this need is classified into 2 subcategories:-
1.     need based on person’s achievements – sense of efficiency, capability, achievement, confidence, personal strength and independence
2.     needs related to the esteem of others – social standing, honour, importance, dignity and appreciation. Need others to recognise and appreciate own competence
§  if satisfied – people feel confident, competent, strong, useful and needed
§  if unsatisfied – feels inferior, weak, helpless
§  the most stable an healthiest basis for self-esteem is a deserved respect, rather than unjustified veneration or fame arising from one’s background
§  Hjelle and Ziegler – genuine self-esteem is based on actual experiences and not only the judgement of others
Need for self-actualisation – Page 343
§  The process of becoming all one in capable of being, making full use of all of one’s abilities, talents and potential
§  We become restless if we are not doing what we are capable of doing
§  When basic needs are satisfied regularly, people start functioning on self-actualisation level
§  Growth motivation now comes to the fore
§  Self-actualisation includes 17 motivations, known as meat-needs of B-values that are innate and must also be fulfilled to ensure maximal growth
§  These B-values are not separate piles of sticks but the different facets of one jewel
§  Self-actualisation encourages a person to discover  and release her highest potential and in doing so, become a fully functioning, goal-oriented being
The meat-needs (B-values); to know and understand, trust, justices, meaningfulness, beauty, order, simplicity, perfection, wholeness, completion, totality, uniqueness, aliveness, goodness, autonomy, humour, and effortlessness

Development of Personality – Page 344
§  Development proceeds in accordance with the need hierarchy
§  Higher needs become part of the individual’s experience when lower needs are met regularly
§  The individual is higher developed when they are on a higher level of need motivation and therefore are also healthier in their functioning
§  The gratification of each set of needs is a step towards self-actualisation, although the satisfaction of basic needs does not guarantee the fulfillment of meta needs
§  Someone who is functioning on a higher level may make a temporary return or regression to a lower need level
§  People are also not only motivated by the needs on the higher level that they are at, they still have biological and safety etc needs that must be fulfilled
§  The hierarchy applies as a rule, BBUUTT there are expectations, higher needs may surface after forced or voluntary deprivation
§  Therefore there may be other paths to healthy development apart from the needs hierarchy
§  Masters who have attained great heights despite hardships might have achieved more if their basic needs had been met
Why is self-actualisation not always attained? – Page 346
§  The lack of self-knowledge and self-insight – cannot identify and relies own needs and potentials
§  Obstructions – ungratified needs, must have courage to take risks and experiment with new ideas
§  JOHAN COMPLEX (running away from one’s talents) – we feel inferior in the presence of great people, / we fear the moment of attainment may be too great for us, the ecstasy overpower us
§  Afraid of overestimating ourselves – we suspect ourselves of having a superiority complex
§  Lack of integration – opposing needs (man not allowed to be soft or tender)

Optimal Development – Page 347
§  The ideal level of functioning is self-actualisation
§  The individual must be able to regularly satisfy his needs on all four lower levels
§  Thus an optimally developed person is one who has overcome the restrictions of his environment and can meet his deficiency a needs regularly, he has also accepted the responsibility of self-actualisation and to become the best he can be
§  Maslow believed that self-actualisers could be described according to 15 characteristics:
Accurate Observation of reality – Page 347
§  See past barriers that people erect, observes reality for what it is, accurately
§  Do not fear reality or the unknown, may even prefer it
§  Prepared to take risks in search of truth – not handicapped by lower needs
Self-Acceptance, accepting others and human nature – Page 347
§  Recognise and accept human nature unconditionally for what it is not what they’d prefer it to be
§  Accept and deal with all human processes, functions and happenings without feeling uneasy, guilty or worried
Spontaneity, simplicity and naturalness – Page 348
§  Their behaviour is simple, spontaneous and is absent of superficiality and pretence
§  Act in unconventional, spontaneous way when they reveal their own thoughts and emotions, but not on purpose if it would harm/hurt them or others
§  Do not allow rules and regulations to obstruct them in reaching goals they regard as important, but they do follow and ethical code (not necessary tat of communication)
Task involvement – Page 348
§  Without exception they are involved in some calling which is not primarily aimed at satisfying their won needs but a means of serving some greater cause
§  Wider perspective thus easily immersed in philosophical and ethical matter which concern the whole of humankind
§  Do not trouble self over petty matters 9life easier for self and others)
Exclusiveness: the need for privacy – Page 348
§  Enjoy isolation and privacy, due to being less dependant on the support, warmth and reassurance of others
§  Able to disengage themselves from stormy/uncomfortable situations and handle it calmly, objectively and with dignity
§  May seem cold, stand-offish and antagonistic
Autonomy: being independent of culture and environment – Page 348
§  Function relatively independent of physical and social environment
§  Continues growth and development does not depend on external rewards but on own potential
Consistent renewal of appreciation – Page 348
§  Do not tire of simple, basic enjoyments of life
Continues to experience events with same delight, surprise, and ecstasy as on fist occasion, continues to be strengthened and inspired by them
Peak experience – Page 349
§  Mystical experiences (moments of intense excitement and tension, but also peace, bliss and ser entity) usually creative people
§  Feel both more powerful and helpless and less aware of time and space
§  Usually the result of love and sexual climax, burst of creativity, insight, discovery and feeling at one with nature can also follow a long period of dedication to a specific task
Social feeling – Page 350
§  Concerned for humankind in general (can become irritated by deficiencies of ordinary people, feels empathy and sympathy for them)
Interpersonal relationships – Page 350
§  Have deeper and more intense relationships than others, only a small circle of friends as they prefer other self-actualisers as close friends, also particularly fond of children
§  Often acquire admires, followers or disciples who demand more than they can offer from them, which can be exhausting deals with this being friendly and pleasant but tries to avoid the situation, can be firm if needed
Democratic character structure – Page 350
§  Do not discriminate on the grounds of class, qualifications, age, race or gender
§  Are willing to learn from anyone who is their superior in a given field
Discrimination between means and goals and between good and evil – Page 350
§  Usually regard the means as inferior and subordinate tote goal, often able to see the activity as an end in itself and enjoys it. As much pleasure from journey as from arrival and as they are so creative they can transform most monotonous task into a game
§  Strong ethical and moral codes even if not religious
Philosophical, benevolent sense of humour – Page 351
§  Sense of humour is not the same as ordinary people, the kind that provokes a smile rather that hearty laughter, not amuse by a joke made at the expense of  others or that emphases the inferiority of others
§  Amused by absurdities of other’s pride, can laugh at self finds amusement in humour with a message
Creativity – Page 351
§  Certain kind of creativity, originality or ingenuity, like the more naïve, universal creativity of un-spoilt children
§  The ability to look at life like a child – which a fresh, naïve and direct way
§  Ability to see more deeply and accurately and to act more spontaneously, naturally and humanely
Resistance against enculturation – Page 351
§  Abide by own rules, rather that those of the community
§  Resist convention when it is important to them, but oppose ineffective/unless rebellion
§  Would rather operate from within system that to launch an attack from outside
§  Functions autonomously by not conforming, lives in relative harmony with community

Views on Psychopathology – Page 352
§  Rather ‘human limitation’ that neurosis (functioning on a limited level and this limitation can be manifested in various forms and degrees)
§  Anything that frustrates or blocks or denies the essential nature of man – abnormal
§  Anything that disturbs or frustrates or twists the course of self-actualisation – psychopathological
§  The level of development that an individual achieves depends on the needs that are regularly and consistently gratified through the environment
§  The meaning that each individual gives to her needs has a bearing on malfunctioning as well (it will only become a problem id the meaning to the individual is to stronger that with others)
§  Over-gratification of needs can also lead to new forms of pathology i.e.; no longer appreciate the gratification of those lower needs
§  The effects of unfulfilled and over-gratified higher values can also play a role
§  The over-gratification of meta-needs could lead to boredom (have to experience deprivation then to become appreciative once more)

Psychotherapy – Page 354
§  The therapist should act as a facilitator in creating a therapeutic relationship in which clients’ basic needs for security, love and regard will be met so that they can discover and realise their true potential
§  Not that of a doctor trying to cure a sick person but the facilitator of the growth process
§  Play the part of the wise and loving older brother
§  Must have a basic confidence in the individual’s innate goodness
§  To guide the client towards insight into his own deficient needs
§  The client himself can find ways to fulfill those needs
§  Successful therapy can also be applied in a group

Interpretation and handling of aggression – Page 358
§  People can use violence and aggression to satisfy any of their needs
§  Aggressive and violent behavior signifies a lack of self-discipline
§  Self-knowledge seems to be the major path of self-improvement (Maslow)
§  Self-knowledge and self-acceptance is needed for a path of self-discipline that is not aggressive
§  The environment plays a facilitation role in satisfying our needs, which will curb violent behaviour, BBUUTT we are ultimately responsible for discovering and releasing our own positional and for turning away from destructive potential

Self-Concept Theory – Carl Rogers (1902-1987)
§  Ranks self with humanistic-phenomenological school of thought

Background – Page 363
§  Personality theory is based on 3 assumptions:
1.     The individual has constructive potential
2.     The nature of the individual is basically goal-directed
3.     The individual is capable of changing
§  Emphasises the importance of people’s subjective experience of themselves and its influence on personality
§  The individual is the control figure in the actualisation of her potential and the environment can facilitate or inhibit this
§  Potential is actualized in an atmosphere in which the individual is unconditionally accepted and feels free to develop without external restrictions
§  He was exposed to scientific thinking from an early age, farm life expose him to divergent interests, came from narrow-minded conservative home with little social contact with others

View of the person – Page 366
§  His fundamental view of the person is humanistic-phenomenological
§  Discovered characteristics which seemed inherent in people; positive, forward-thinking, constructive, realistic, trustworthy
§  Individuals not just active role-players in their own functioning, can also be trusted to follow a positive course in order to realise their potential and to become the best that they can be
§  Healthy people are ware of their positive and negative attributes
§  His theory is not deterministic because behaviour is determined by the choices of the individual
§  Environment plays no more than a facilitating or inhibiting role
§  The view of themselves and their subjective experience of themselves also play a part
§  Ideal environment – see self exactly as they are, and all potential can be realised
§  The social environment places acceptance conditions on the individuals and they then act in accordance to these standards and not their own potentials
§  The individual has freedom to change, but they must experience unconditional acceptance
§  There are 19 propositions in which he sets out certain assumptions which are fundamental to his approach
§  The organism (person), interacts with phenomenal field (total experiential world)
§  Self-perception – self, self-concept and self-structure

Structure of personality – Page 369
Three structural elements:
o   Organism
o   Phenomenal field
o   Self concept
§  Organism – Page 369
o   The total individual with all physical and psychological functions
o   The central figure who interacts constantly with the dynamically changing world in which she lives
o   Each organism’s behaviour is determined by the specific subjective perception of this world and the meaning the individual attaches to this
§  Phenomenal Field – Page 369
o   The totality of a person’s perceptions and experiences includes
a.    Perceptions of OBJECTES or EVENTS OUTSIDE the person and the meanings attached to them
b.    INNER EXPERIENCES and meanings that relate to the person herself
§  Self Concept – Page 369
  • Differentiated part of phenomenal field which concerns the person herself
  • Organised consistent conceptual gestalt composed of characteristic of the ‘I’ or ‘me’ and the perceptions of the relationship of the ‘I’ or the ‘me’ to others and to various aspects of life, together with the values attached to these perceptions, a process but at any given moment a specific entity
  • The PICTURE which individuals have of themselves (see myself, characteristics, judge self in areas of appearance, ability, talents, motives, goals, ideals and social interactions and relationships
  • Represents the person’s conscious experience of herself
  • Relatively stable pattern of integrated perceptions ;it is still flexible and changeable
  • The IDEAL self is the concept the individual would most like to have
  • When a person is psychologically healthy this ideal self is realistic and in harmony with the self-concept allowing for guidelines towards attainable growth and development
  • When a person is psychologically unhealthy, the self-concept and ideal self do not correspond (extreme forms of the ideals set by OTHERS for the person, not in tune with the real potential)

Dynamics of the personality – Page 371
§  The basic motive which underlies all behaviour is the actualizing tendency
§  There are also 2 other needs that underlies and drive behaviour; the need for positive regard and the need for positive self-regard
§  Self-concept plays a role as well with experiences and behaviour
§  Congruence and incongruence
Actualising tendency – Page 371
§  Believe the purpose of life is to become “that self which one truly is”
§  Actualizing tendency is a inherent tendency of organisms to maintain themselves and to expand /grow in order to become what they can be
§  Therapists rely on this inherent striving for progress to lead their clients towards discovering their own potential and help them develop that potential fully
§  Rogers use the term actualising and not self-actualising
Need for positive regard (from others and self) – Page 372
§  OTHERS – basic need for approval, appreciation, love, admiration and respect
§  To fill this need a person may adopt the wishes and values of another as his won and behave in a particular way to earn esteem
§  SELF – require positive regard from others in order to esteem and to feel positive about themselves
§  Play an important role in determining individual behaviour
Congruence and Incongruence – Page 373
§  Congruence
o   No difference between experiential world and view of self
o   Open to and conscious of all experiences and incorporates them into self-concept
o   See self as they really are and self-concept corresponds with actual potential
o   Behave in a way that maintains and enhances the self-concept
o   Conditions of worth greatly influence congruence
§  Incongruence
o   When experiences contrary to the self-concept form a part of the phenomenal field
o   Follow only conditions of worth
o   Distorted experiences and denied experiences
Role of self-concept in experience – Page 376
§  Three ways in which people deal with experiences; ignore, symbolize (allow into consciousness), refuse to symbolize
§  Specific needs of the individual and self concept determine which possibility is most appropriate
o   Ignore = at that moment the experience is irrelevant to needs
o   Symbolized = when experiences correspond with needs
o   Allowed into consciousness = when experiences correspond with self concept
o   Denied access to consciousness = experiences which are denied or distorted because they are contrary to self concept
§  Unconsciously denial and distortion can also take place when the organism ahs a need or experience which cannot be symbolized because it is completely incongruent with self-concept, then self-concept is threatened and must be protected
o   Subception = the experience not congruent with self-concept is ‘traced’ or selected on unconscious level and defended against (might be accompanied by anxiety)
Role of self-concept in determining behaviour – Page 377
§  Most of what a person does, corresponds with the self-concept
§  Self concept plays an important role in determining behaviour
§  A problem arises when the needs and the self-concept do not correspond
§  Individuals function ideally when their self concepts are congruent with their needs and feelings

Development of the personality – Page 379
§  General principles of development
§  The most important areas in human functioning are the interaction between a person’s experience and her self-concept, and the role of the self-concept in determining behaviour
§  The main issue in personality development is the self-concept
§  A bay gradually experiences herself as a differentiated organism separate to the experiential world
§  Functions then at the organismic evaluation process level
§  The evaluation process at this level deals with judging/evaluating only the satisfying of won basic needs and not those of others so as to experience mostly positive events
§  The self-concept gradually develops as a result of interactions with social environment and as a consequence of the evaluation of others, then it begins to exert an influence on functioning
Development of self-concept – Page 380
§  Attaching specific meaning to experiences involving self and incorporating it into the self-concept
§  People who are closely connected to and individual and who help satisfy his or her needs for positive regard play an important role in the development of that individual’s self-concept (significant others)
§  Two key factors in development of self-concept is unconditional and conditional positive regard
Unconditional positive regard
§  Accepted by significant others for what they are, just as they are
§  Accepted as people with specific needs which are peculiar to them and which are not measured against the needs of others, nor are others’ needs forced on them
§  Van express their needs and feelings as they do not need to fulfill specific requirements from others to gain esteem
§  They are free to include all experiences and therefore there is congruence between potential and self concept
§  No limitations imposed
§  Unconditional acceptance leads to complete actualisation of potential and allows individuals to realise innate abilities
§  Consistently accept the individual and their needs but nor all behaviour
§  It is not only the specific behaviour of the significant other that is important but also the individual’s perception of it
§  People should have freedom to an extent and use their freedom responsibly and choose constructive behaviour
§  The can rather express certain feelings or emotions symbolically so that it is still socially acceptable
Conditional positive regard
§  Non-acceptance by significant others, feel worthy only when she has fulfilled certain conditions laid down by others
§  Conditions of worth = I will love you and praise you only when you do this the way I want you to do it
§  The individual’s a subjective interpretation of acceptance and rejection also plays a role in self-concept
§  Denial, or distortion of events/characteristics/evaluations will be made and incorporated into self-concept
§  Denial, or distortion of events/characteristics/evaluations will be made and incorporated into self-concept
§  The more conditional positive regard the individual receives the more they include conditions of worth in their self concept and the more incongruent they become
§  It reduces the individual’s ability to actualise potential and impairs development towards being a fully functional individual

Optimal Development – Page 383
§  Capable of allowing all experiences into the self-concept
§  See self as they really are and self-concept accord with actual potential
§  The wider the spectrum of experiences, and the more integrated these experiences are into the self-concept the better this person will know himself and be able to use his abilities and talents, choose constructive actions and realise his potential fully
§  Fully functioning person
    • It’s a process not a static state
    • The characteristics of the fully functioning person do not function independently, they are often linked
Growing openness to experience – Page 383
§  Moves away from defensiveness and subception and is increasingly open to experiences (internal or external)
§  Experiences all events consciously as part of themselves and their world
Increasingly existential life style – Page 383
§  An increasing tendency to live each moment fully ‘ to open one’s spirit to what is going on now, and to discover in that present process whatever structure it appears to have…’
§  Allows the person to approach experience without a preconceived structure, permitting the experience itself to form and reform the structure from moment to moment
§  Experience is not distorted and remodeled to fit the self-concept
§  Each moment is new, he does not know what he will be or how he will respond  in the next moment
§  This openness of experience speaks of excitement, daring, adaptability, tolerance, spontaneity and lack of rigidity and presumes and underlying foundation of trust
Increasing organismic trust – Page 384
§  They trust themselves increasingly when choosing behaviour appropriate to a specific situation
§  Their sense of what is right and wrong is a reliable guide to satisfactory behaviour if they are more open to experiences and do not depend on existing codes, social  norms, or the judgments of others
Freedom of choice – Page 384
§  Individuals can make whatever choices they like in terms of total experiential fields to which they become increasingly open
§  They have this freedom because they feel responsible for their choices
§  Can use this freedom to choose careers that are based on their organismic evaluation
Creativity – Page 384
§  Will adapt constructively to society but without being a conformist
§  Able to adjust to changing environments relatively easily and in a creative way
Basic reliability and constructiveness – Page 384
§  Basically good and open to a wide variety of his own needs and to the demands of the environment and society
§  Can be trusted to act positively and constructively
§  Able to admit and accept all his needs and also able to maintain a realistic balance amongst them
§  No danger of this person’s aggressive needs getting out of hand
§  An example of an organism which can give full recognition to rationality
§  Has control to maintain balance between needs and work out the most constructive way for people to live in harmony with self and others
A rich, full life – Page 385
§  Their lives are rich, full and exciting
§  They experience joy, pain, love, heartbreak, fear and courage intensely
§  The good life – enriching, exciting, rewarding, challenging and meaningful
§  The stretching and the growing of becoming more an more of one’s potentialities, the courage to be, launching oneself fully into the stream of life

Views on Psychopathology – Page 385
§  Malfunction = incongruent and always on defensive, not open to all experiences
§  Incongruence inevitable leads to some tension
§  When incongruent experience on unconscious level is experiences by subception, it threatens the self-concept and is accompanied by anxiety
§  Anxiety is the emotional (affective) response when the self-concept is threatened
§  This threat and the accompanying anxiety is the trigger for defensive behaviour
Defense Mechanisms – Page 386
§  Use to protect and preserve the self concept against incongruent experiences
§  Distorting incongruent experience to fit the self-concept so that they self-concept remains intact and is not disorganized
§  Its not me its them = I will interpret it in a way that will suit my self-concept
§  Incongruent experiences are ignored and excluded from consciousness
§  That never happened and I will continue on as if it never did
Malfunctioning – Page 387
§  Defensive behaviour reduces the person’s consciousness of the threat, BUT not the threat itself
§  The circle of repeatedly incorporating distorted perceptions into the self-concept increases the possibility of threatening experiences as the false structure becomes bigger and must be must be maintained at a cost
§  The more incongruent the person the more threatened she is by experiences, the more defensive she is and the more rigid the organisation of the self structure (certain degrees of malfunctioning)
§  Neurotic = degree of incongruence becomes immoderate, behaviour is restricted and discomforting, can maintain self-concept but functioning is precarious and she is psychologically vulnerable
§  Incongruence becomes such that person’s de fences are ineffective, a defenseless’ situation develops, the incongruities become conscious causing the incorporation of contradictory experiences into self-concept
§  This personality disorganization is usually described as psychotic = bizarre, irrational behaviour liked to earlier denied parts of self which erupt uncontrollably
§  Person-centered therapy seeks to bring about harmony between self-concept and total organismic field of experience

Implications and applications – Page 388
Psychotherapy – Page 388
§  Therapist listen with unstinting attention and makes few contributions to conversation
§  Reflection of feelings of patient, but he said not so, but to make sure he understood correctly
§  To provide clients with the opportunity to some to know themselves fully and to reveal their potential, therapist must accept client unconditionally
§  The quality of the relationship is between the people in the therapeutic situation is also important = person-centered therapy
Therapeutic Process – prepared for all possibilities – Page 389
§  The client is central and must take responsibility for her own change, the therapist is the facilitator who creates a climate of unconditional positive regard, warmth and empathy in which clients feels free and safe to allow change and to strive towards congruence and the actualization of her potential
§  What is salient is not the power that the therapist has over the client but that the transfers that power to her, the client = freedom to exercise autonomous choices and to act creatively, productively, constructively and responsibly
§  The task of the therapist to create a growth-facilitating climate with three elements; sincerity/congruence of therapist (authentic), unconditional acceptance, empathy (listening and understanding)
§  Therapist must not be passive, not clarify feelings in a cold, clinical and apparent omniscient way
§  Therapist must observe client’s frame of reference, how client sees world and self

Interpretation and handling of aggression – Page 396
§  Does not believe that evil is inherent
§  In a nurturing, growth-promoting climate, individuals can be trusted to make constructive choices that will lead to improved socialization and better relationships with others
§  Believes that cultural differences are responsible for destructive  behaviour
§  The fault must be sought in the environment and healing takes place in an understanding accepting atmosphere
§  “There is much I don’t understand bout some evil behaviours”
§  Works one-to-one or in small groups, but not in large groups

Self-Concept Theory – Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)

Background – Page 49
§  Considered to be the first personality theory – and most respect still regarded as the most comprehensive of all the theories
§  Freud was born in 1856 spend most of his live in Vienna, Austria
§  Qualified as medical doctor
§  Practice in Austria as neurologist, psychiatrist and psychoanalyst
§  His theory was influences by his personal life – his relationship between his parents and his thoughts bout the phallic stage and the Oedipus complex
§  Important to take into consideration the social and scientific contexts in which he developed his theory
§  His theory was developed on the basis of contact with neurotic patients, drawn from the higher social class of Viennese
§  Therefore the over-emphasis for the role of sex in human functioning – a total taboo in higher circles.
§  His theory, for various reasons, is not accepted in it’s entirety by modern day psychologists
§  Firstly – the terminology used in psychology is based on Freudian concepts
§  Secondly – many other theories have been develop in opposition to Freud and cannot be understood without a sound knowledge of Freud’s theory
§  Psychoanalysis is fundamental to all psychological studies, if you agree or not

View of the person underlying the theory – Page 51
§  Freud’s theory is based on mainly 3 basic assumptions:
o   Psychosocial conflict
¨     A person is caught up in constant conflict between drives within the psyche and the demand and norms of society
¨     Sexual and aggressive drives – demand continual satisfaction
¨     Moral prescriptions of society whose purpose is to protect society by controlling these drives
¨     Results of this conflict – individual tries to experience drive satisfaction and few guilt feelings
o   Biological and psychic determinism
¨     Freud describes human drives as physiologically based and rooted  within the body
¨     Drives are localized in part of the psyche called id
¨     Societal rules are absorbed into another part of the psyche called superego
¨     Conflict which determine all behaviour takes place within the psyche
o   Mechanistic assumption
¨     He believed that human beings function in a mechanistic way
¨     Physical principles of energy consumption, conservation and transformation – valid for human functioning
¨     Stream engine to be taken as suitable analogy for psychic functioning

Structure of the personality – Page 52
§  Clear, definitive structural properties to the personality = id, ego and superego
§  Functioning take place on 3 levels of consciousness = conscious, preconscious and unconscious
§  Sees the individual as a unit consisting of 3 separate aspects with 3 primary goals:
o   Ensure the survival of the individual
o   Allow the individual to experience as much pleasure as possible
o   Minimize the individual’s experience of guilt
Levels of consciousness – Page 53
§  Conscious level:
o   contains thoughts, feelings and experiences – currently aware off
o   Content of this level change all the time
§  Preconscious level:
o   Information which can be recalled to consciousness without much effort
o   Consist mainly of memories of earlier occurrences – not painful or anxiety-provoking
o   Experiences and observations not concentrating at any particular moment
§  Unconscious level:
o   Contains a person’s “forbidden” drives
o   Memories of events that cause pain, anxiety, guilt
o   Cannot recall to the conscious mind
§  Levels of consciousness did not explain person’s complex psychic function therefore he created structural concepts – id, ego and superego


The illustration represents the individual who, according to Freud, is in a state of constant internal conflict. In this conflict the ego acts as mediator between the id and the superego, and this takes considerable skill on the part of the ego. Metaphorically it means that the rider (ego) will only remain in the saddle if he can keep the horse (id) under control and can make the horse do what the instructor (superego) demands. The ego must therefore be strong enough to cope with the conflict between the id and the superego and the accompanying tension. Remember that the process of conflict occurs on an unconscious level.

The id – Page 54
§  Is the innate, primitive component of the psyche
§  Direct contact with the body – obtains energy for all behaviour
§  Linked to the drives – life drive (eros) and death drive (thanatos)
§  Function according to primary process and pleasure principle
§  Term primary processes indicates the id is not capable of any thought, self-reflection or planning
§  Id is selfish and unrealistic
§  No contact with external reality therefore not geared to actual drive satisfaction – cannot find appropriate objects in environment that could satisfy its drives
The ego – Page 54
§  Ego develops from the id – ensure individual’s survival – formed through contact with outside world
§  Ego’s job is to serve the id’s needs – find suitable object for real drive satisfaction
§  Function according to secondary process and reality principle
o   secondary process:
¨     ego evaluates and weighs up situation before action is taken
¨     ego reflect upon and plan the satisfaction of drives
¨     postpone satisfaction not appropriate time and situation
o   reality principle:
¨     ego takes physical and social reality into account – using conscious and preconscious cognitive processes – sensory perception, rational thinking, memory and learning
¨     ego uses reality testing, object choice cathexis  try to establish on rational grounds whether or not an object is serviceable
§  Ego experience constant pressure from the id – needs to accommodate all the demands of physical environment and moral codes of society
§  Ego learns to take the physical and social demand into account when select appropriate objects
§  Leans that some substances are edible and others not, and certain objects, actions, times and situations are not regarded by society as suitable or morally acceptable for satisfaction of certain drives
§  Ego is the executive official operates in terms of 3 briefs, those of the id, physical reality and superego
§  Id threatens the ego – tension and discomfort when drives not satisfied
§  Superego threatens ego – punishment and guilt
§  Conflicting demands of id and superego that cause psychic difficulties for ego
§  Ego functions on all 3 levels of consciousness, use energy which derived from the id – specifically from the so-called ‘ego-drives’
§  Ego develops during 1st year of life – continues to change throughout persons life – learns through experience, new ways of drive satisfaction, adapt to changing id drives and circumstances in social and physical reality
Superego – Page 55
§  The superego develops from the ego
§  Happens through complicated process in which behavioural and moral codes of society play an important role
§  Active in person as representative of society’s moral codes – pressure individual to abiding by these codes
§  Function according the moral principle, make person feel guilty
§  Freud calls the punishing element – conscience and the positive dimension which encourage moral behaviour – ego-ideal
§  Through the conscience and ego-ideal – superego exercises a constant pressure on the ego

Dynamics of the personality – Page 56
§  Have a detailed theory of motivation, the study how people try to deal with conflict through the use of defense mechanisms
Motivation: Freud’s drive theory – Page 56
§  Mechanistic assumption –
o   Believes the human psyche functions with the help of energy
o   Converted from a physical-biological from to psychic energy
§  Energy transformation –
o   Steam pressure being converted into electrical energy
o   Drive reside in id and internalised moral codes in superego both posses transformed energy
o   This energy can either urge individual to act or torture persons with guilt feelings
§  Energy conservation –
o   Individual to cope with a conflict between these 2 forms of energy
o   Drive energy in form of (forbidden) wishes versus ‘moral’ energy in form of guilt feelings
§  These drives are the main driving forces in human functioning which not only motivate and propel a person to function but also determine the direction of behaviour
Characteristics of drives – Page 57
All drives have 4 characteristics in common:
1.     Source
§  Various drives obtain energy from different parts of the body
§  E.g. – energy for hunger drive – the gullet and stomach
§  Adult sex drive – genital and sex glands (physical source referred to as erogenous zone)
2.     Impetus or energy
§  Each drive has impetus – certain quantity of energy or intensity
§  Affected by condition of energy source at given moment, an lapse of time since last satisfaction of drive
3.     Goal
  • Each drive has a goal of satisfaction
  • Experienced as desires to accomplish something specific
  • Pressure of such desire remain operative until drive is satisfied
  • Individual not necessarily aware of drive or desire
  • Freud holds that many sexual and aggressive drives and wishes are ‘experienced’ unconsciously
4.     Object
§  Each drive requires an object
§  Something or person suitable for it’s satisfaction
§  By using the energy of the drive to help carry out suitable action
Type of Drives – Page 58
§  Freud reduces all drives into 2 basic inclinations: develop constructively and to disintegrate and die
§  He divides drives into 2 groups life drive (eros) and death drive (thanatos)
§  Life drive:
o   preserve life and therefore function in a constructive manner
o   Follow general biological tendency of cell-formation and development
o   Further differentiated between ego drives – individual survival, and sexual drive – ensure survival of the species
§  Death drive:
o   tendency to break down
o   reduce complex cells to inorganic matter
o   represents of living organism to die
The ego drives
§  Associated with individual survival
§  Includes all drives that aims at satisfying basic life needs
§  Ego drives not rigidly controlled by moral codes – no conflicts of conscience and guilt feelings
§  Function of ego drive is for development of the ego and provide energy for its functioning
§  Ego drives are clearly distinguished from the sexual drives:
o   relates to survival of individual, sexual drive – survival of species
o   not associated with moral prescriptions and guilt feelings
o   provide energy required for functioning of the ego
The sexual drives
§  Main concern for this drive is survival of species
§  According to Freud the sexual drive is present in the child at birth – only after puberty start functioning in service of reproduction
§  Bodily source of the baby’s  sexual drives is the mouth area, especially lips and inside of mouth
§  He contend that when sucking continue after it has been satisfied this is purely erotic pleasure and is an expression of the sexual drive
§  By sucking the breast it satisfied different drives nl; ego drives of hunger and thirst and the oral-sexual drive
§  In course of child’s physical development other sexual drives emerge as other body parts become sources of sexual drive energy
§  The sexual drive create ongoing psychological problems – therefore play an important role right through people’s lives
§  Play a significant role in the development of mental disturbance
The death drive
§  Freud holds that behaviour is caused by factors within the personality
§  Find an intrapsychic explanation for phenomena such as war, aggression, murder, suicide and  death
§  Basic function of live drive is to build bigger and bigger biological units, the death drive’s basic function is to break down living cells and change them to dead matter
§  Death drive in conflict with life drives, projected outwards in a form of aggression and destructive behaviour towards people and things
§  All aggressive behaviour such as murder, suicide and violence is regulated by strong moral codes
§  Superego uses aggressive drive energy by making a person feel guilty about  undesirable wishes and actions
§  He also holds that forms of self-inflected harm, accident-proneness and suicide are outcomes of the unconscious operation of the death drive through the superego

Anxiety – Page 61
§  Anxiety is the ego’s reaction to danger, stems from conflict between the id’s forbidden drives and the superego’s moral codes
§  Freud distinguishes 3 types of anxiety:
Reality anxiety:
§  In current psychological terminology is called ‘fear’
§  Actual dangers in the external environment
§  Although it is unpleasant and intense, you will be able to do something about it
Neurotic anxiety and moral anxiety:
§  The treat comes from within and the origin is partially or wholly unconscious
§  Difficult to deal with these types of anxiety – they play a important role in all psychological disturbances
§  In neurotic anxiety the ego fears, forbidden drive which has been unconscious will appear in the conscious mind or will become uncontrollable, lead to punishment and guilt feelings
§  In moral anxiety emphases is on fear of superego, ego fears that the superego will punish it for  forbidden drive or action

Defense Mechanisms – causes neurotic a moral anxiety – Page 62
§  Strategies which the ego uses to defend itself against the conflict between forbidden drives and moral codes, which causes neurotic and moral anxiety
Repression: the unconscious exclusion of painful impulses, desires, or fears from the conscious mind.  (repressed memory): when explaining repression, Freud compared the process to “condemnation” and stated the following: “Let us take a model, an impulse, a mental process seeking to convert itself into action: we know that it can suffer rejection, by virtue of what we call ‘repudiation’ or ‘condemnation’; whereupon the energy at its disposal is withdrawn it becomes powerless, but it can continue to exist as a memory. The whole process of decision on the point takes place with the full cognizance of the ego.  It is very different when we imagine the same impulse subject to repression: it would then retain its energy and no memory of it would be left behind; the process of repression, too, would be accomplished without the cognizance of the ego in a nutshell, Freud was saying that when we have memories, impulses, desires, and thoughts that are too difficult or unacceptable to deal with, we unconsciously exclude them from our  consciousness (some people like to say we ‘push’ them down from our consciousness to our unconsciousness). This is similar to suppression with one key difference – suppression is a conscious exclusion (or ‘pushing’ down) of these painful memoires, thoughts, etc., and it more similar to Freud’s explanation of condemnation.
Resistance: a process in which the ego opposes the conscious recall of anxiety – producing experiences.
During psychoanalysis there are many signs that the client and therapist are making progress and working towards identifying the root of the problem. One sign is resistance, which is a somewhat disruptive response by the client to some topic they find sensitive. The reason it is sensitive is because it is the source of close to the course of the anxiety. E.g. The client might make a off-handed remark or joke, claim they forgot the information, or pick a fight with the therapist. When they act in these types of counterproductive ways in response to the therapist addressing certain topics (I.e., the resistance), the therapist is getting closer to the root of the problem.
Projection: is when someone is threatened by or afraid of their won impulses so they attribute these impulses to someone else. E.g. A person in psychoanalysis may insist to the therapist that the knows the therapist want to rape some women, when in fact the client has these awful feeling to rape the women.
Reaction Formation: a defense mechanism where an individual acts in a manner opposite from his or her unconscious beliefs. A homosexual who joined a gay hate group would be an example of reaction formation. Freud believed that defense mechanisms helped us cope with the world around us by letting us repress our deepest unconscious.
Rationalisation: According to Freud when people are not able to deal with the reasons they behave in particular ways, they protect themselves by creating self-justifying explanations for their behaviours. For example, if I flunk out of school because I didn’t study properly it might be so hard for me to deal with that I rationalize by behaviours by saying that I simply didn’t have enough time to study because I have.
Fixation: This term has several different t meanings in psychology. Fixation has a long history in Freudian and clinical psychology, and refers to when a person is ‘stuck’ in one stage of psychosexual development. For example, if a person does not get through the oral stage of development properly, then Freud would say that the person is fixated in the oral stage and will continue to seek oral pleasures, and will not be able to progress to the next stage of development until the oral issues are resolved. Fixation also refers to an inability to adopt any different or new perspective on a problem. It is similar to fixation in the Freudian sense except that here it is not necessarily referring to psychosexual development.
Regression: According to Freud there are times when people are faced with situations that are so anxiety provoking that they can’t deal with it and they protect themselves by retreating to an earlier stage of development. E.g., my niece was afraid to go to school for the first time (first day of school can be very scary) so she began to exhibit every childish behaviours like throwing a tantrum,. Crying, not letting go of her mother’s leg, and even wetting her pants.
Identification: According to Freud, as children develop, there comes a time in which the child must adopt the characteristics of one of the patents. During this process of identification, the child adopts the characteristic of the same-sex parent and begins to associate themselves with a copy the behaviour of significant others. In addition, Freud stated that this process also involves the development of the child’s superego (our moral guide in life – the moral component of personality) which is done by incorporating characteristic of the father (act more like this father than his mother in the sense of being a male) and will develop a superego that has similarities to the moral values and guidelines by which the parents live their lives (e/g/ if the parents are honest people, the child may come to realize that honesty is important and that lying is wrong).
Displacement: According to Freudian psychoanalytic theory, displacement is when a person shifts his/her impulses from an unacceptable target to a more acceptable or less threatening target. For example, if you are very angry at your teacher because you did poorly on a test and think the reason for your poor performance is because the teacher asked tricky, unfair questions, you may become angry at your teacher. But, your obviously can’t yell at your teacher , hit your teacher, or express your anger in any other hostile way toward the teacher, so you go home and ‘displace’ your anger by punching your little brother instead.
Sublimation: Although may people criticize Freud and discount his ideas, he developed many landmark theories and concepts that persist today.  One of these concepts is a defense mechanism known as sublimation. According to Freud, sublimation is a way in which people can deal with socially unacceptable impulses, feeling, and ideas in social acceptable ways. For example, a person my have a longing to be a banker but has not been able to achieve this goal. The frustration with not being able to achieve this goal may be very difficult to deal with and lead to hostility and anger towards bankers, to the point where the person wants to physically hurt all bankers,. Of course, hurting all bankers is not socially acceptable, soothe person transforms this anger with bankers into building his own venture capital business and becoming incredibly successful.

§  Freud contested that, also in dealing with one’s anxieties, one has a ‘slip of the tongue’ (or ‘Freudian slip’), e.g. calling a person we know by another name. 
§  A paraprax is also considered to be where a person might hit themselves accidentally with a hammer. 
§  Freud states that it is an accident but the manifestation of guilty feelings in the Ego.

The development of the personality – Page 71
§  Freud based his theory concerning personality development on his psychosexual theory. 
§  The personality develops through sexual satisfaction of each stage, notice only up to puberty! 
The oral stage – Page 72
§  At birth, the baby is in the oral stage,
§  Where sexual satisfaction is derived through the lips, mouth (source of sexual drive energy)
§  Weaning cause frustration of oral sex drive (punishment)
§  Cope by displacement (substitution)
§  Death drive (individual towards external objects)
§  Ego & Superego develop (knowledge of external reality)
§  Fixation cause oral personality type (dependence, narcissism, excessive optimism, jealousy/envy)
§  Can also cause opposites (selfishness, self-loathing, pessimism, exaggerated generosity)
The anal stage – Page 73
§  The Anal stage (2nd year of life)
§  The anus and excretory canal constitute the most important erogenous zone – main source of sexual drive energy
§  Child enjoy sexual pleasure in excretion and/or retaining excretion
§  Toilet training (aggression - by refusing or at wrong time)
§  Superego undergo further development (parents punishment/reward)
§  Fixation cause anal personality (excessive thriftiness, obstinacy or opposite)
§  Development of sadism & masochism, excessive compulsive neuroses
The phallic stage – Page 74
§  Between the ages of 3-5/6, one is in the Phallic stage of development,
§  Where children wish to possess their parent of the opposite sex.  For example, a boy will reject his father (Oedipus complex), in favour of his deep-rooted sexual desire for his mother and vice versa for a girl (Electra complex).

o   A boy = castration anxiety.  A girl = penis envy

§  Dev in boys and girls are different:
  • Girl - Electra complex (hatred towards mother because of absence of penis.)
  • Envies father and dev sexual desire.  Thinks he can provide penis.
  • Absence of penis, deep and complex psychic wishes
  • Boy - Oedipus complex (sexual desire for mother, hate father)
  • Masturbate.  Could dev hatred, leads to ridicule/punishment (castration anxiety)
  • Superego involved in mental disorders – overly strict superego develop:
¨      Father to strict – rigid rules identification with father
¨     Child’s superego may become unyielding – father often absence
¨     Harsh superego develop when father is not strict enough
The latent stage – Page 7
§  Aged between 6 – start of puberty
§  Freud states that little sexual energy takes place within the body and the child will want to renew a relationship with the parent of the same again
§  No new sexual drive energy
§  Play with friend of the same sex
§  Learn gender role (homosexual stage)
The genital stage – Page 76
§  The genital stage – At puberty, physiological change marries with a mass of sexual energy for the adolescent. 
§  The oral, anal, phallic and latent stages all accumulate, giving rise to the child’s first experiences of internal conflict, and development of anxiety.
§  Puberty - increase in sexual drive energy (source: mouth, anus, phallus, sexual glands)
§  Reawakening of sexual wishes (esp. displacement & sublimation)
§  Might regress to cope with anxiety (back to previous stage)
§  Genital character: functions optimally

Optimal development – Page 77
§  Do not give much detail on optimal development – primarily interested in explanation and treatment of psychic disturbances
§  No essential difference between healthy and psychologically disturbed people
§  Both grappling with same psychic problems, - handling conflict between drives and morals
§  Genital character – closest to represent the ideal of a balanced conflict management
§  Developmental viewpoint : genital character is characterised by the genital stage is attained without any fixations on pre-genital stages
§  No regression to pre-genital stages of development
§  Structural viewpoint: this personality type has strong ego and superego – not overly strict
§  These determine how the genital character functions
§  Dynamic viewpoint: basic psychodynamic same as other individuals – sexual and aggressive drive come into conflict with moral rules
§  Use most effective defense mechanism nl. sublimation
§  Well-adjusted person who manages his/her life according to overt moral prescriptions of society of this ‘Victorian’ time

Views on psychopathology – Page 79
§  Regard his psychoanalytical theory as explanation for both normal and abnormal behaviour
§  Psychological disorders caused by – imbalance in structure of personality
§  The ego too weak to handle conflict between id and superego
§  Historical causes: traced back to psychosexual development in pre-genital stages
o   Fixation in a stage: unsolved problems repressed the unconscious – allow excessive, fear-arousing drive energy to remain present in psyche
o   Development of too weak ego: ego has not develop sufficient rational skills for drive satisfaction
o   Uses ineffective defense mechanisms
o   Also caused by fixation and parental over-protection
o   Development of an overly strict superego:  develop when parental discipline is too strict
o   Opportunity for expression of aggression is too limited
§  Contemporary contributory causes: may stem from changes or crises that upset person’s balance between fulfillment of drives and guilt feelings
§  Brought about by transition from one stage to another or radical change in lifestyle
§  When ego cannot cope with anxiety which result in conflict between id and superego it resorts pathological ways of handling conflict
§  Freud regards pathology as desperate effort to escape from this conflict situation
§  He distinguishes between 3 types of mental disorders, neuroses, personality disorder and psychoses
African Perspectives

Background – Page 535
§  Jung was the only psychologist who tried to study the psyche of the African person
§  Our knowledge of the functioning and personality of Africans is mainly confined to anthropological studies
§  ABP (Association of Black Psychologists) trend to promote Africentric Psychological thinking and African cosmology
§  Vera Buhrmann did extensive studies on traditional healing methods and on pathological behaviour of Africans
§  Holdstock provides an up to date and most comprehensive African perspective on psychology (2000)
§  He believes that Africa may have psychological dimensions that are unique and valid and needs relevant and applicable methodologies to unravel and understand the African psyche
§  The emphasis should be different but equal
§  Current Eurocentric theories and methods exclude and neglect folk knowledge and local issues and most Africans has never heard or know the meaning of psychology
§  Three factors can be ascribed to the Africanisation of psychology’ psychology collaborated in the oppression of American blacks and the African colonial project, Psychology has had little relevance to the problems facing the blacks and the poor, psychologies imported to Africa do not accurately portray African life and mentality
§  It is important to also note that Africans are currently in a transitionary phase – shifting from traditional to more modern and westernized ways of life
§  Peltszer constructed an African socialization model based on three level of acculturation; traditional, transitional and modern
§  African perspective means the various cultures and religions found on the whole continent of Africa

View of the person – Page 541
§  Founded on a holistic and anthropocentric ontology
= humans from an indivisible whole with the cosmos
= a unity with God, other humans and nature + form they form the point of departure and the centre of the universe ‘man-centered society’
§  Three cosmic orders/realities can be distinguished, but they do blend together in practical everyday life

Macro-cosmos – Page 541
§  The domain in which God is encountered
§  The transcendence of Gold with the ancestors serving as the all-important intervening medium and contract with God
§  Therefore for everyday existence the ancestors are more important and form and inherent part of daily functioning
§  T6ranidtional African daily functioning is fundamentally religious
§  There is no distinction between sacred and worldly between religion and non-religion or spiritual and physical/material aspect of life
§  Traditional religion focuses on the community that the individual belongs to = collective functioning on micro-cosmic level
§  Religion is a psychological phenomenon located in the psyche of human beings’
Meso-cosmos – Page 542
§  No man’s land = coincidence and the forces of the ancestors, malignant spirits and sorcerers hold sway
§  Situated in the world of individual and imaginative imagination and involves ancestors, the living reality (animals and humans) as well as natural physical reality (forests, bushes, trees, rivers etc)
§  The explain all conflict and events with reference to this level who influence and determine their behaviour, thus the level from which human dynamic is explained = behaviour is wholly attributed to external agents outside the person
§  Cannot be held responsible for behaviour as all behaviour and events are caused by external, supernatural beings or powers (represses personal initiative)
§  Africans are losing/have lost some of their rootedness which guided them for daily lives in micro-cosmos
Micro-cosmos – Page 544
§  Domain of the individual person in her everyday, collective existence which is influenced by the macro- and miso-cosmos
§  This collective existence is typified by the philosophy of Ubunto or batho ‘a person is only a person because of other people’
§  Morality, humanness, compassion, care, understanding and empathy do not take advantage of others but helps others
§  Ethos of the survival of the community and the union with nature; co-operation, interdependence, collective responsibility, communality, group orientation, and agreement
§  Personhood and identify of traditional African is embedded in her collective existence , ‘I am because we are and because we are, therefore I am’
§  No individual personality structure, the individual is a system comprising sub-systems who form part of larger supra-systems

Cognitive functioning and the concept of time – Page 549
§  The cognitive functioning of Africans are intuitive rationality, because they rely on intuition and emotion more than on rationality and analyses
§  Their rational functioning is closely interwoven with their collective way of life
§  Logic of the heart – personal, spiritual centre of man, spontaneously present, intuitively sensing, existentially apprehending and totally appreciating
§  Time is a two-dimensional phenomenon with a long history, a present and virtually no future, circular, therefore the future has no meaning for Africans because it has not yet been lived and is therefore NOT part of time and cannot be through about unless it falls within the rhythm of natural phenomena
§  Actual time(events currently happening or that have happended0 and potential time (something that will definitely happen in immediate future in natural rhythm of life(sunrise and sunset)
§  No-time – events not yet taken place
§  The activities or events are central not the time at which they take place, be IN time not ON time
§  Time can be bought or sold ‘time is money’ but for Africans time has to be created and produced, therefore not enslaved by time s they create it to suit themselves
§  They wait for time or produce time when they sit and ‘do nothing’
Africans can ask ancestors to intercede on their behalf by sorting out a problem in the past which will resolve the current problem and the future will be taken care of, because they 9the ancestors) are timeless creatures

Optimal Development and Mental Health – Page 552
§  Traditional Africans are better equipped to reach and sustain optimal development and psychological health because of their connectedness with their physical and spiritual environments and the balanced used for the left and right brain hemispheres
§  They see, experience and express the parts of things identified by the left hemisphere as whole, complete entities, which is the duty of the right hemisphere
§  Being part of a collective existence offers security that can counteract anxiety and tension
§  To attain emotional equilibrium the role of music, dancing and rhythm must also be taken into account
§  Music becomes the expression of real feelings; active participation in dancing and signing or keeping rhythm becomes a means of expression
§  It brings purpose and meaning, enhances understanding, heals, lifts the spirits, unites individuals with great cosmic force these mechanisms form an intricate part in the attainment of a full life and play an important role as psychological healing devices
§  Denial, sublimation, rationalisation and intellectualization are not present in African to the same extend as westerners

Views on Psychopathology – Page 555
§  Health = state of wholeness and integration
§  ill-health = state of fragmentation and disintegration
→ disharmony
§  Body and mind are a unit, so physical health and mental health are seen as one
  mental illness                   → Not devoid of physical symptoms
                                        → Psychosomatic disorders
§  There is a primary indivisible unity between mind and body, unlike the western reciprocity
§  Stress      → Can be work-related in a Western view
                    →Most likely community related in an African view
§  Psychopathology linked to ancestors, malignant spirits and sorcerers.
  pathological behavior
→ result of disharmony between a person and the ancestors
          → caused by evil spells or deeds of malignant spirits or sorcerers
§  Thwawa = process of becoming an traditional healer
          → often involves an illness
§   What is important is not what caused an illness, but who brought it about
§  Dreams → Not symbolic, but direct communication from ancestors.

Psychotherapy – Page 559
§   Words have less value in an African context
          ○ Verbal communication thus less NB as part of therapy
          ○ Rhythmic dancing, singing and ritual are important avenues for healing
§  Healing should be grounded in the collective existence
          ○ Treatment should involve the whole family
§  African perspectives emphasize “collective social responses to afflictions” as opposed to Western individualistic diagnoses.

Social Cognitive Learning Approach

Background – Page 292
§  Regards behaviour as primarily learnt
§  Focuses on the study of observable behaviour
§  Makes liberal use of unobservable matters such as thought, symbolic processes, expectations and convictions
§  Makes use of concepts originating in cognitive psychology, Gestalt psychology and phenomenology
§  Regards observational learning as most important method of learning
§  Does not view reinforcement as essential aspect of learning
§  Most important figures in development of social cognitive leaning are Julian Rotter, Albert Bundura and Walter Mischel

View of the person underlying the theory – Page 295
§  Balanced – not extreme or one-sided
§  Behaviour is the result of knowable causes – positivists approach
§  Acknowledges a multiplicity of causes such as factors within individual and environment
§  Individuals can influence their own behaviour and development – freedom
§  Co-determinants of behaviour – individual and whole situation – self-regulation
§  Interactional view – reciprocal determinism – behaviour is determined by interaction of 3 factors: PERSON, SITUATION, BEHAVIOUR in the situation
§  In every situation the individual has various behaviours as disposal – response repertoire
§  Characteristics vary from situation not situation
§  Individuals react differently in he same situation
§  Theory of specificity – interaction between individual’s characteristics and those of situation, determine behaviour in a specific situation
§  Thus behaviour is the result and part of the ongoing processes that influence one another
§  Cognitive learning theory regards individuals as active participants who perceive and evaluate stimuli, strive towards goals and devise plants to achieve them, plan their future behaviour and judge past behaviour, re-plan and change behaviour in light of self-evaluation

Dynamics of the personality – Page 298
§  MOTIVATION – the result of two processes: interaction and learning
§  Behaviour can only be explained by taking into account the interaction between the environment and cognitive processes such as thinking, interpretation of stimuli and expectations of future events
§  Behaviours is motivated by its probable results, i.e. the expectation, the behaviour will then be carried out or not depending on whether it will bring valued benefits, no noticeable effect or feared disadvantages
§  Expectations re the results of our behaviour are shaped by two types of learning: EXPERIENCES re results of behaviour and OBSERVATION of results of others’ behaviour
§  Behaviour is not only motivated and regulated only by expectations concerning its external results, but also by the individual’s self-evaluation
§  Behaviour usually remains consistent despite changing circumstances
§  Individuals are also motivated to behave in a way that leads to self-reward and not self-punishment
Locus of Control – Page 301
§  The extent to which people perceive an internal or extern point of control in their lives
§  This view is related to other aspects of the personality and behaviour
§  Generalized expectancies about the results of their behaviour with a multitude of individual differences such as to which extent other people can be trusted
§  Locus of control is the most well-known expectancy style identified by Rotter
Internal Locus of Control
§  Expectancy that they themselves control their lives
§  Perceive what follows their behaviour as a result of their actions or of their own relatively permanent attributes
§  Considerable control over what happens to them
§  Less influenced by others
§  High achievement motivation
§  Can still use external locus of controlling specific situations depending on past learning experiences in such a situation
External Locus of Control
§  Expectancy that circumstances beyond their control determine their fate
§  The outcome of their behaviour depends on extraneous influences such as good fortune, coincidence, fate or the influence of others
§  Little control over their lives
§  More readily influenced by others
§  Can still use internal locus of control in specific situations depending on past learning experiences in such a situation
Self-reflective Capability – Page 302
§  Ability to have a self-image, to be able to reflect on oneself and to evaluate oneself
§  The central component of this capability is the self-efficacy perception = beliefs about own capabilities to function effectively in a given situation (self-control)
§  This determines whether or not they will make any attempt to deal with the situation
§  It influences their choice of situations as they tend to choose situations which they believe they will succeed in
§  High self-efficacy – more motivation + more persistent in attempts to take control of a situation, which leads to more success experiences to further argument self-efficacy (this circle is the same for low-efficacy as well)

TO a great extent individuals, in interaction with the situation, determine their own motivation, and human behaviour is determined by a large variety of, individual motives
Bandura states that individuals have capabilities that underlie their functioning in the interaction between person, situation and behaviour, and that at these distinguish them from animals

Learning from the social cognitive learning perspectivePage 304
§  ALL behaviour, except for a few reflexes is acquired through LEARNING
§  Three factors: role of individual, form of learning and re-enforcement
§  Individuals are active participants who can influence their own learning by CHOOSING what they want to learn, through their VALUES which determine what they will regard as reward and by REWARDING or PUNISHING themselves.
§  Three forms of learning: through direct experience(includes conditioning), observational learning and through self-regulation
§  Direct, vicarious and self-reinforcement (or punishment)
Direct Reinforcement – Page 305
§  Receive reward for behaviour from external agents
§  By taking something unpleasant away from them
§  Only succeeds when it occurs in conjunction with self-reward
Direct Punishment – Page 305
§  Individual is subjected to painful or unpleasant stimuli by external agent
§  Something pleasant is with held from them
Vicarious Reinforcement – Page 305
§  One person observes another being rewarded for her behaviour
§  More readily leads to reproduction of behaviour
Vicarious Punishment – Page 305
§  One person observes another being punished for his behaviour
§  Plays a very important role in observational learning
Self-Reinforcement – Page 305
§  Individual rewards own behaviour by praising themselves or feeling proud, or giving self a concrete reward
Self-Punishment – Page 305
§  Punish own behaviour by blaming self, or feeling ashamed, or in a concrete way
§  Self-regulation plays an important part in all three types of learning
Learning thought Direct Experience – Page 306
§  Behaviour changes as a results of performing a behaviour for which they are rewarded or punished by someone ELSE (operant/instrumental and classical/respondent conditioning)
§  Not an automatic process, cognitive processes play a role
§  All available info is used in the interpretation of each specific situation
§  Self-reinforcement also plays a role as the person subjectively accepts reinforcement as reward or not
Observational Learning – Page 307
§  Important form of learning
§  Many behaviours are so complex, dangerous or far removed from innate reflexes that it can only be learnt through observational learning
§  Social learning: learning where social and cognitive factors play a role
§  Model = the person/example whose behaviour is observed
§  Observer = the person who is observing the behaviour and reinforcement agent = person who rewards or punishes model’s behaviour
§  When the observer observes the modeled behaviour being vicariously reinforce, the observer will change her behaviour accordingly. And this is called imitation
§  When the observer has a negative attitude towards observer or observes vicarious punishment, the observer will counter-imitate the model’s behaviour
§  Three aspects of observational learning = attention, retention and reproduction
§  Attention  - observer pays attention to modeled behaviour
§  Retention – remembering observed behaviour that observer is paying attention to, influences by may factors (behaviour and attributes of model, relationship between observer and model)
§  Retain the behaviour but does not necessarily reproduce it
NATURE of the modeled behaviour – Page 309
§  Influences all 3 aspects of observational learning (OL)
§  New unknown active or striking behaviour attracts more attention as well as information given before had to draw attention to an action
§  Interaction between nature of observed behaviour and individual’s moral values will determine if when and why behaviour will be reproduced
Characteristics of MODEL – Page 310
§  Age, sex, status, personality characteristics in interaction with other factors
Characteristic of OBSERVER – Page 310
§  Motivation, interest, expectancies, self-perception and values, self-confidence, opinions, intelligence and perceptiveness influence all three aspects of OL
RESULTS of model’s behaviour – Page 310
§  Vicarious outcomes such as vicarious rewards usually leads to imitation and vicarious punishment to counter-imitation
§  Vicarious results are observed, info is interpreted (what can be expected and motivation) and then used in light of total situation (such as models reaction and perceptions) and previous experience
§  An outcome (or relative outcome-my judgement) to behaviour is just as important as reward or punish for reproduction of this behaviour
§  Behaviour can also be indirectly imitated – similarly
Self-efficacy – Page 312
§  Reproduction of acquired behaviour depends on confidence in abilities
Self Regulatory Learning - Page 312
§  Choosing situations which will expose to particular environmental influences and evaluating own behaviour
§  Most important form of learning, fundamental to all other types of learning
§  Subjective evaluation of own behaviour, no external reinforcement
§  Use standards based on previous experience, self efficacy, future expectations and values
§  Arranging situation and outcome of behaviour so that there can be external reinforcement in a concrete way

Development of Personality – Page 313
§  Development continues throughout life, individual continually learns new and modifies behaviours
§  Development is an ongoing process of change resulting from the interaction between genetic and environmental factors
§  Social cognitive learning theorists concentrate on HOW a behaviour is developed

Optimal Development – Page 314
§  No specific pronouncements on development
§  It is a theory about LEARNED behaviour, not good/bad/normal/maladjusted etc
§  Able to recognise and take into account the factors that are relevant to effective functioning in given situation , even though these may be relatively complex, and succeed in producing behaviour which meets their own standards
§  They have a realistic self-efficacy, do not over or under estimate own abilities
§  It is largely environment which determines what individual regards as desirable and valuable

Views on Psychopathology – Page 314
§  Pathological behaviours is learnt
§  Does not look for underlying dynamic causes of psychopathological behaviour and ignores organically based  disturbances
§  The lack of self-efficacy is important in the development of undesirable behaviour
§  Certain cognitive styles and encoding strategies such as learnt helplessness and pessimism are linked with the development of pathological behaviour patterns
§  Learnt helplessness characterised by: emotional disturbance, reduces motivation and cognitive deficiency
§  Learnt helplessness is also associate with several other personality characteristics
§  Individuals development characteristic styles in their attempts to explain events in their environment
§  This explanatory style has 3 bipolar components:
    • Preference for external or internal locus of control
    • Tendency to see situations as stable or transient
    • Tendency to view matters globally or in limited way
§  Internal, stable and global – depression
§  Extreme external style – paranoia
§  Social cognitive learning approach focuses on changing individual’s unhealthy expectancy patterns and encoding strategies and in creasing their self-efficacy

Psychotherapy – Page 316
§  To improve a client’s functioning in the type of situation that they find problematic
§  Can do this by teaching them more effective cognitive styles and to improve their self-efficacy
§  Therapeutic techniques associated with social cognitive learning approach are brief, economical, can be sued with individuals or groups, can be linked with other techniques, and lay persons can be taught to use them
§  Modeling can be used by having the observer see the modeled behaviour being learnt by the model as well
§  Can use modeling with systematic desensitisation: observe model gradually losing fear of snakes
§  To further enhance effectiveness of modeling, use direct reinforcement and participant modeling
§  Covert modeling can also be used: by imagining another person performing the desired behaviour
§  Stress inoculation – taught ways to deal with stress, such as to restructure situations cognitively to experience them as less stressful, also correct breathing and muscle relaxation techniques
§  Mahoney and Thoresen developed method whereby individuals become own therapist through self-regulation
§  Beck developed cognitive therapy for treating depression: relationship between negative cognitions and melancholy, so change negative ideas with realistic ones

Interpretation and handling of aggression – Page 319
§  Aggression is behaviour that develops from inborn and acquired behaviour patterns in a lifelong process in which direct experience, observational learning, and self-regulation all play a part
§  Aspects in this developmental process may be describe as:
1.     Behavioral Repertoire: aggressive modes of behaviour are past of this = due to genetic and environmental factors each individual has certain behaviours at disposal that can be harnessed for aggression (fits and cognitive functions)
2.     Rewarding Consequences: increase chances of repeated aggressive responses
3.     Aggressive Models: through observational learning NEW aggressive responses will be learnt, low-level aggression n can grow into high-level aggression therefore cur even low-level aggressive responses
4.     Performing aggressive responses depends on other factors and interactions: factors = expectancies, self-efficacy, interpretations, self-regulation and values
5.     Provoking aggressive responses
6.     The results of the aggressive behaviour will determine its PERSISTENCE
7.     The REGULATION of aggressive behaviour is a complex function of the interaction between person, situation and behaviour
8.     The CONTRIBUTIONS of the individual depend on total development up to that point, what aggressive responses are already available in repertoire, generalized expectancy patterns, standards and values, evaluations of expectancies